We live in a day and age when scientific advancements and medical breakthroughs happen on a regular basis. Stopping smoking is also an important step, as nicotine-addicted people are constantly at the mercy of a withdrawal-craving cycle, which profoundly affects mood. It may take time to address the initial symptoms of stopping nicotine, but the brain chemistry will adapt in time. Fortunately, CMS had already been sorting through those problems in the first three years of the Trump administration, for example allowing Medicare patients to use telehealth to determine if an office visit was necessary and allowing patients to send medical pictures to their physicians electronically. CMS also allowed great leeway for telehealth in the Medicare Advantage program. So when COVID struck, the administration was ready. Congress was only too willing to let the administration do what it had wanted to do all along. State governments also got on board, not only loosening prior restrictions but also, in many cases, allowing doctors to practice across state lines. Cindy Blackstock, who is very well known for her fight on First Nations child welfare, said we have to remember it’s the professionals who put these things in place, it was the professional lawyers who wrote the Indian Act, and it was professional doctors who performed medical experiments on Indigenous peoples in the residential schools. So, they are just as imbedded in this colonial mindset as anybody in our society. It’s going to take an active approach and because of I’m an educator, I believe in education and I believe that we can start unhooking these inherent biases and stereotypes from people’s ideas and teach them the right way and what we are about. Through talking about our experiences in Canada and the genocide we have experienced, the poverty, and the discrimination, we can create health care professionals who have an understanding of those issues and do not operate out of these inherent biases and stereotypes. That’s my hope, and I know that at Dal they were starting that process. The Functional Medicine Perspective. One component of Functional Medicine focuses on how diet impacts health and function. When Functional Medicine practitioners examine the role of nutrition in chronic disease, they look at multiple systems, such as the digestive system, the immune system, and the detoxification system, because of the interconnections between those systems. “It’s well known that a small shift in time can have a large impact on our body clock and our health, and the time change causes sleepiness and fatigue. For a young, healthy individual, a one hour difference shouldn’t make that much impact,” said Dr. Yosef Krespi. He is director of the Center for Sleep Disorders at Lenox Hill Hospital in New York City.